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Process heat transfer equipment fouling due to sodium aluminosilicate precipitation is a serious problem that confronts high-level nuclear waste liquor and Bayer process alumina processing plants. The fouling of stainless steel substrate by thermodynamically stable and unstable sodium aluminosilicate polytypes: Fouling invariably occurred via heterogeneous nucleation, crystal growth and particulate adsorption processes, accompanied by solution-mediated, phase transformation and morphological changes.
For the thermodynamically stable cancrinite fouling, the amount of scale deposited increased systematically with increasing singletreff cuxhaven time before levelling off as a result of depleted supersaturation. Where the deposited scale involved a less stable phase e.
The periodicity of this unusual behaviour appeared to be directly and kinetically related to polytypic phase transformation of amorphous to zeolite A, zeolite A to sodalite and sodalite to cancrinite. Figures - uploaded by Marek S. Author content All content in this area was uploaded by Marek S. Stainless steel coupon showing marked areas for reproducible SEM imaging and fouling analysis. SEM micrograph of fouled stainless steel substrate in SE A and BSE B modes at magnification produced from cancrinite-seeded sodium aluminosilicate solution at 65 o C and after 1 h.
Content uploaded by Marek S. Heat Exc hanger F ouling and Cleaning:. F undamen tals and Applications. Engineering Conferences In ternational Y e ar So dium Aluminosilicate Solid Phase.
Universit y of South Australia. W estinghouse Sav annah River Compan y. Process heat transfer equipm ent fouling due to. The fouling of Fouling invariably occ u rred via het erogeneous. The periodicity of t his. Fouling of heat transfer e quipment, which occurs as a. The increase in supersaturation of the sodium. The accumul ation of. At these el evated temperatures. The equilibrium Si O.
Consequently, SAS precipit ation fouling single m nner kleve the spent. SAS fouling managem ent requires very costly. Effective ma nagement and mitigat ion of sodium. Increased research effort and initiatives with mult i. The single m nner kleve sodium alum inosilicate phases that foul. It rapidly transform s into zeolite A which.
The m echanism and. The fouling behaviour and single m nner kleve growt h single m nner kleve of. The desilicat ion mechanism, leading t o scale formation.
The phase transformat ion rate. As a method of sodium alum inosilicate fouling. NAS seeding resulted i n rapid desilication. For exam ple, solid phase dependent. Given 2 solid phases, where one is stable e. C using unseeded and seeded, synt h etic. Isothermal, batch desili cation experiments using. Flirten seite further 24 stainless steel coupons were.
Before their use, each coupon was marked at 3 different. A, B, single m nner kleve C so that identical positions on. This procedure was found to be necessary due to the.
Analysing simil ar areas sign ificant single m nner kleve reduced the. Slurry and foul ed substrate samples were. Filtrate solut ions were analysed for SiO. For solid phase analysis, steel t o kens detached from. The three marked areas. A, B and C were analysed at magnifications of. The extent of surface coverage by sodium alum inosilicate. State University Sergee v et al. It i n volved im ages captured at several e.
UK at 15 kV. The XRD patterns were coll ected. Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning: Fundamentals and Applications, Art. Sodium alum inosilicate liquors were prepared from. Chemical s, Australia and Milli-Q water surface te n sion. The test liquor was m ade by mixing e qual volumes of.
Thus, the resultin g sodium aluminosil icate. Due to the signi ficantly different equili brium. To run an experiment, the crystallizer was first. This agitation rate together with the. In seeded experiment s, a predetermined quantit y. The seeds were prepared by. Particle size anal ysis by laser diffracti on showed the seed. Stainle ss steel coupon showing marked areas. SEM secondary electron images Figure 2 used for.
To e nhance the. Cancrinite-seede d fouling behaviour. The cancrinite seeded fouling experi ment was. The behaviour of such a stabl e foulant. The SEM photomicrographs kostenlose dating portale im test tha t highly. The particles deposite d. Single m nner kleve ntary dynamic light scattering anal ysis of.
The lack of a d etecta ble amount of colloidal SAS. Figure 2 SEM micrograph of foule d stai nless steel. Secondary ele ctron micrograph of Nucleation in the bulk solution occurre das c olloidal. The amount of scale. Well rounded prim ary. Furthermore, som e of the parent. Secondary electron m icrograph of As shown in Figure 5, the scale.
Crystallizat ion time, h. Extent of steel substrate fouling as function of. XRD analysis confirmed the scale product as.
Amorphous phase-seeded foulin g behaviour. The fouling behaviour of steel coupons removed. C is shown in Figure 6. SEM examinat ion indicated. The primary scale particles deposited. The scale particles grew i nto nm sizes.